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California, 



SAN DIEGO COUNTY'S GARDEN MAGAZINE SINCE 1909 



35 Cents 





APRIL- MAY 

Vol. 54, No. 2 
1963 



How To Enter Your Prize Bloom in a Flower Show 



The Bi; 
Show-Off 

ORCHIDS 

How To Grow 
Three Varieties in 
Your Backyard 



ROSES 



April 13-14 
Will Tell Who 
Grows The Finest 



LILIES 



Strange Kin and 
Forgotten Beauties 



• Calendar of Care 

• 50 Years Ago 

* Lawn Guide 

* Books 




PATRONIZE THE ADVERTISERS WHO KEEP 
CALIFORNIA GARDEN GROWING 




Andersen, Walter, Nursery Page 4 

Bali Hai Restaurant ...Page 7 

Bamboo Tree, The Page 7 

Bennett's Garden Center Page 25 

Broadway Florists Page 28 

Cafe Del Rey Moro .....Page 28 

California Garden Page 6 

Carolyn Beauty Shop Page 28 

Charles Hair Stylists Page 8 

Coleman, Curtis Co., Realtors Page 8 

Coles, John, Book and Craft Shop Page 29 

Comstock Dahlia Gardens Page 27 

Culligan Soft Water Page 4 

De Haan's Shoreline Nurseries ....Page 26 

Eugene Cooper Studio.. Page 28 



Exotica Nursery Page 29 

Garnet Avenue Nursery Page 27 

Hillside Nursery Page 26 

Hospitality Hostess Page 26 

Johnson Rose Nursery Page 25 

Lessar Cactus Garden Page 23 

Milorganite, Butler's Mill.... Page 26 

Mission Hills Nursery Page 28 

Presidio Nursery Page 28 

Quon Mane, La Jolla Page 4 

Rainford Flower Shop Page 

Rosecroft Gardens ..Page 

San Diego Gas and Electric Co Page 

Suburban Savings and Loan Ass'n Page 

Truly Nolen Pest Control Page 

Volz Point Loma Pharmacy Page 



Subscriptions to California Garden, $2.00 per year; foreign countries and Canada, $3.00. See above address. 
Price of subscription is included in SDFA dues. Second class posfage paid at San Diego, California. 
California Garden is on the list of publications authorized by the San Diego Retail Merchants Association. 




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CALIFORNIA 
GARDEN 



Kemembeh. ueul Gbld'lTlau calben ckeles 

GARDENERS will be breathless trying to keep up with their 
April chores. 

Near the coast, if new growth has started on plants that were 
frosted, they may be cut back . . . inland gardens better wait until 
May. Trees that have flowered and shrubs, such as quince, lep- 
tospermum, heather, mock orange, pyracantha and zylosma, to 
mention only a few, flower on new wood so prune them now. 
This is especially true of hibiscus. Nandina will prosper if old 
canes are removed close to the ground. Geraniums will take a 
heavy cutting back as they are such vigorous flowers. 

Martha Washingtons are about to bloom, but they may be 
pruned lightly. If the short cuttings are planted in small pots 
they will flower and make roots too — so accommodating. Partial 
shade for these in warm regions. 

The pelargonium family which also includes ivy and scented 
geraniums give more bloom over a longer period than most 
plants. To encourage flowers rather than leaves always use a 
fertilizer low in nitrogen for members of this genus. 

WEEDS ABOUND 

When the garden is cleaned up, try to keep it that way. 
This is weed time. Hoe them out and cover the ground with a 
thick mulch of compost, wood shavings or fir bark. The latter 
in small lump size is very good as it has an acid reaction. A 
mulch up to six inches deep will smother the weeds and conserve 
moisture but be sure water penetrates the soil beneath the mulch. 

APHIDS ACTIVE, TOO 

Aphids are very active in the spring. Water will knock off 
some of them but they should be kept down with a spray of 
malathion at least once a week. Red spider is prevalent, too, 
especially on pyracanthas, junipers and other shrubs. Control 
with the same spray as for aphids. Some plants, like verbeneas 
and zinnias, are subject to mildew, more so in foggy weather, so 
start treating them before trouble develops, it's easier that way. 
Keep after snails and slugs. 

FERTILIZER TIME 

All lawns should be given extra food just now. Actually, 
the whole garden needs fertilizing, except for citrus trees. Nar- 
cissus that are out of bloom are storing nutriment through their 
leaves for next year's crop so keep the leaves green and growing 
as long as possible with some extra food. Watering is equally 
important. Enlarge the basins around trees to the drip line and 
give a thorough soaking at regular intervals. Amaryllis and 
agapanthus appreciate extra moisture right now. 

REPOT CAREFULLY 

If you wish to move or repot azaleas make haste to do so 
before the new leaves come out. Watch new and old plantings 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 
VOL. 54, NO. 2 

CONTENTS 

Orchids 

Cattleyas . . . 

Hothouse Culture... 12 
Cymbidiums . . . 

Vigor & Ease. ... 9 
Cypripediums . . . 

Alluring as Ever. .14 
Big Show-Off . . . 

Entry Notes ...16 
Roses 

Annual Parade of Roses.. 20 

Calendar of Care... 24 

Lilies 

Forgotten Beauty . . . 

R. Hoyt. .19 

Strange Kin . . . D. Betts 21 

How to Enter a Flower Show. ...17 
Color on the Rocks . . . 

Harden. ...22 

Flower Show Calendar 7 

Garden Tour Schedules 19 

Hints on Lawn Care . . . 

Parrent.AS 
Table Topics Tea ...18 

DEPARTMENTS 

Book Tours 29 

Calendar of Care 24 

Begonias, Camellias, 

Dahlias, Roses 

50 Years Ago 6 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 

Published Bi-Monthly by the 

SAN DIEGO FLORAL ASSOCIATION 

Floral Association Building, Balboa Park 

Office hours: M-W-F, 10-3. Phone 232-5762 

All rights reserved. 

Advertising rates on request. 

Co-Chairmen: Jean Kenneally, Vera Thacher 

Editor Don West 

Assistant editor.... Alice M. Clark 

Advertising... .Joan Betts, Alice M. Clark 

Office Manager..... .Rosalie F. Garcia 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Dorothy S. Behrends Cleoves Hardin 

Helen D. Carswell Foster Parrent 

Alice W. Heyneman Clive Pillsbury 

Roland S. Hoyt Nettie Trott 

Chauncy I. Jerabek Donald Betts 

Donald A. Wilson Larry Sisk 




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Walter Andersen 
Nursery 

LARGEST SELECTION 
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for Beautiful Gardens 

We Specialize in Indoor Plants 

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to see that they do not sink below the original level of the pots 
they came in. Plant a little high in the soil to avoid this and 
check to see that the mulch does not build up on the trunk at the 
base. Use the same precautions with camellias and rhododen- 
drons. All grass-type plants may be divided now, papyrus, etc. 
Dig up old chrysanthemum clumps and replant young outside 
stems, throwing away the center stub. Four-inch cuttings will 
root quickly and be far healthier than the divisions. Most gar- 
deners cut poinsettias back now. When planting the old canes 
be sure they are right side up. (Leaf scars should point upward). 

SUBTROPICALS 

Avocados, macadamias, guavas and other subtropicals can 
go in during April. Better wait to plant citrus fruit trees until 
the ground is really warm in May. Cannas like compost, old 
manure and superphosphate. Scant the water for a couple of 
weeks until growth begins. Caladium roots are ready, treat the 
same as cannas. Gladiolus planted now are more subject to 
thrips during the warm season. Try some gloxinia if tubers are 
available, if not, small plants are sometimes available in plant 
bands. They are fun to grow on to flowering size. Don't over- 
water or leave the foliage wet. 

QUICK, EASY COLOR 

Primulas of the Polyantha type and coral bells will give 
quick color now and repeat again. Lobelia and delphinium 
carry the blue notes low and high, on through most of the sum- 
mer. Pick up some plants of campanula. Varieties Mayi and 
Alba are choice for summer hanging baskets but there are several 
other types that make fine ground covers all the time with an 
extra bonus of blue bells in June. Herbs can open a world of 
charm for you in scent, color, taste and unusual and different 
beauty. Start collecting them whenever you see nice young 
plants. Peppers and eggplants are handsome and timely now. 
A couple of plants will stock a family all summer. Set out to- 
matoes in May. 

WILD LILAC 

No garden should be without some of the native ceanothus, 
usually known as Wild Lilac. The tall one, Sierra Blue, is a 
blaze of blue glory now. There is a great range of blue shades 
in this plant and it also comes in dwarf sizes and ground covers. 
In May the crepy-white Matilija Poppy will tempt you. Buy it 
in cans, it does not transplant or divide well, in fact it is a tem- 
peramental beauty that must be treated like a wilding. If space 
is no problem Echium fastuosum, Pride of Maderia, sends up 
spikes of blue that are a joy to behold in the coming months. 
Best of all, it will take a poor soil and likes sea air. The white 
Rockrose thrives under the same conditions. It is blooming now, 
a spreading mound of dark green almost covered with small five- 
petalled white flowers. Visit the many fine nurseries listed in 
these pages for other "garden goodies" of the season, and tell 
them California Garden sent you. 

Alice M. Clark 

San Diego Floral Association 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



4. 



7. 



8. 



10. 



11, 



12. 



Flower Show 
Calender 



Orchid Show — San Diego County Orchid Society 
Conference Building, Balboa Park, San Diego, California 
April 6 & 7, 1963, 10 am to 6 pm 

Rose Show — San Diego Rose Society 

Electric Building, Balboa Park, San Diego, California 

April 13 & 14, 1963, 10 am to 6 pm 

Vista Garden Club 
Recreation Center, Vista, California 

April 20 & 21, 1963, 2 pm to 7 pm Saturday, and 10 am to 
5 pm Sunday 

Coronado Floral Association 
Spreckels Park, Coronado, California 
April 20 & 21, 1963, 10 am to 6 pm 

Lakeside Woman's Club, Garden Section 
Memorial Building, Lindo Lake Park 
April 25, 1963, 12 m to 8 pm 

Imperial Beach Garden Club 
Carpenter's Hall, Palm City, California 
April 26 & 27, 1963, 12 m to 6 pm 

Santa Maria Valley Garden Club 
Woman's Club, Ramona, California 
April 27, 1963 

Dos Valles Garden Club 

Rotunda of Rincon Springs Inn, Pauma Valley, California 

April 27 & 28, 1963, 12 m to 7 pm 

Julian Wildflower Show 

Basement of City Hall, Julian, California 

May 12 to 26, 1963 

Poway Valley Garden Club 

High School Bldg., Poway, California 

May 17 & 18, 1963 

Grossmont Center Garden Club 
Grossmont Shopping Center on the Mall 
May 17 & 18, 1963 

Chula Vista Community Flower Show 
Recreation Center on the Parkway, Chula Vista, Calif. 
May 25 & 26, 1963, Saturday, 2 pm to 6 pm and Sunday 
10 am to 5:30 pm 



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Accessories for 
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ROSECROfT 

Gardens 

NOW is the time for: 

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First-year bulbs grown -from seed, 
by Rosecroft. 

Ready in April 

• Beautiful New Fuchsias 
Please — no phone calls 

510 Silvergate Ave. San Diego 6 

(Take Rosecroft Lane from Catalina Blvd. on 
the way fo Cabrillo monument) 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 



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California 
Garden 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 



IN THE ORCHID 
WORLD, VIGOR, 
EASE OF GROWTH, 
GREAT RANGE OF 
COLOR AND FINE 
QUALITY WON FANS 
FOR THE RICH . . . 



CYMBIDIUMS 



By Fred Stewart 



CYMBIDIUMS are among the 
easiest of all orchids to grow. 
They can be successfully 
grown and flowered in all the tem- 
perate parts of the United States 
and the world. Each year Cymbid- 
iums are becoming more popular, 
for they are, from many standpoints, 
one of the most satisfactory of all 
orchids to grow. Their vigor, ease 
of growth, pleasant appearance 
when not in bloom, long lasting 
flower quality and great range of 
rich pastel colors, are all reasons for 
their increasing popularity. 

With Cvmbidiums we must fix in 
our mind that they are cool growing 
terrestrials (plants that grow in 
soil) and that they put out a great 
deal of growth each year, compared 
to other types of orchids. 

In California, where they can be 
grown out of doors, Cymbidiums 
may be grown in a lathhouse where 
conditions are favorable for Camel- 
lias, Azaleas and other shade loving 
plants. They are often grown suc- 
cessfully in the ground under trees 
where the shading is not too dense 
and the tree roots do not rob them 



of nourishment and moisture. If 
grown in pots or tubs under trees, 
this is not a problem. 

In areas where winter freezing 
occurs, a glasshouse is required to 
protect Cymbidiums from below 
freezing temperatures. When grown 
under glass, a minimum night tem- 
perature of around fifty degrees is 
considered optimum. When grown 
out of doors, Cymbidiums will toler- 
ate temperatures around, or even 
slightly below, freezing. If the tem- 
perature should drop to freezing 
though, a bed sheet, sack or sheet 
of flexible plastic should be thrown 
over the plants for their protection. 

SUITABLE SOIL 

Cymbidiums can be grown in 
soils suitable to other shade loving 
plants. An important fact to bear in 
mind in formulating a Cymbidium 
soil is that the drainage must be 
good. Though Cymbidiums require 



Fred Stewart is a popular com- 
mercial breeder of orchids with 
headquarters in San Gabriel, Cali- 
fornia. 



great amounts of water during the 
growing season, they will not toler- 
ate any standing water around their 
roots. Most composts today gen- 
erally contain many or all of the 
following ingredients in varying 
proportions : 

( 1 ) Leaf mold for physical prop- 
erties, food value and bene- 
ficial action. 

(2) Clay free silt sand for body. 

(3) Garden peat for physical 
properties, acid reaction, 
food value and moisture re- 
tention. 

(4) Palco wool (ground red- 
wood bark) for buffering 
action, acid pH and general 
physical properties. 

(5) Fir bark for physical prop- 
erties, acid reaction, food and 
moisture retention. 

(6) Lime for proper acidity 
(around pH 6) 

(7) Fertilizers for food. 

The basic facts to bear in mind 
when you mix your soil are: make 
sure it is open and porous, has an 
acid reaction and that the drainage 
is thorough. 

Assuming that we do have a care- 
fully formulated mix with sufficient 
food value and good drainage, we 
must now balance this off with gen- 
erous watering in order to assure 
the plants optimum growth. During 
the active growing season, which 
runs roughly from March through 
September in most parts of the 
United States, Cymbidium plants 
should be watered sufficiently to 
keep the compost quite on the moist 
side, in fact quite wet compared to 
Cattleya culture. One of the main 
causes of leaf tip die-back is insuffi- 
cient water during the growing sea- 
son. It is important when watering 
to see that the plant is thoroughly 
watered. Sufficient water to avoid 
shriveling of the bulbs is a good 
general rule during the cold winter 
months. 

REPOTTING 

A mature Cymbidium plant grow- 
ing in a pot or tube is generally re- 
potted or divided every two or three 
years. Repotting is necessary when 
the plant has filled the container 
with its growth or when the com- 
post has broken down. The best 
time for repotting a mature plant is 
as early as possible in the spring 
after the plant has flowered, at least 
by the end of May. 

If a plant that is being repotted 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 



CYMBIDIUM 

Fertilizing, Growth & Division 

Chart 



Use low nitrogen 
fertilizer. 

Do not feed if weather 
cold or overcast. 

This is most dormant 
period. 



JANUARY 



FEBRUARY 



Main blooming season. 



MARCH 

APRIL 

MAY 



Divide and repot if 
not in bloom, or as 
soon as flowers cut. 



JUNE 
JULY 



Use low nitrogen 
fertilizer to induce 
bloom spikes. 



AUGUST 



SEPTEMBER 
OCTOBER 
NOVEMBER 
DECEMBER 



Most rapid growth 
period. Use well-bal- 
anced high protein 
fertilizer. Give lots 
of water and light. 



.Months in which 
most spikes appear. 



has a compact growth habit and does 
not have any, or more than a few, 
leafless bulbs, it is often advisable 
to merely wash off the old soil from 
the roots and shift the plant with- 
out dividing to a larger pot with 
fresh soil. With larger plants which 
may have a number of rootless, leaf- 
less bulbs in the center (called 
Back Bulbs), it is generally desirable 
to remove these rear bulbs at the 
time of repotting and dividing. 

When dividing observe how the 
plant is growing and try to make 
well balanced plants of each divis- 
ion. From three to seven mature 
leaved bulbs can be considered a 
flowering size division. Do not be 
too eager to divide into small plants, 
for it takes a good sized, well estab- 
lished plant to produce the best 
flowers. 

LIGHT IMPORTANT 

This is one of the most important 
factors in the successful flowering 



of Cymbidiums. A good general 
rule is to give the plants sufficient 
light so that the foliage is greenish 
yellow, rather than a verdant green. 

If the plants are grown under 
trees, make sure that the shade is 
medium to light, such as afforded by 
California Live Oaks. Trees such 
as Avocados or other dense shade 
types give too much shade. Several 
hours of clear early morning and/or 
late afternoon sun are highly de- 
sirable. We wish to emphasize that 
too dense shading is not conducive 
to optimum flowering. 

We are learning continually that 
Cymbidiums produce more and bet- 
ter flowers when given greater 
light intensity than has generally 
been accepted as optimum. When 
plants are in flower, however, 
heavier shading should be given to 
promote clearer colored, better qual- 
ity flowers. 

Fortunately, Cymbidiums are sub- 
ject to fewer pests and diseases than 



are most garden plants. Of course, 
care must always be taken to see 
that slugs and snails are kept under 
control. Orchid scale can be cleaned 
off with a toothbrush and plants 
sprayed with Malathion or DDT 
solution. Red Spider is perhaps the 
most persistent and difficult to de- 
tect of the pests. It can be found 
under the leaves where it sucks the 
surface sap and makes the under- 
sides appear scratchy-whitish or 
silvery where the surface cells have 
lost their sap. Malathion and the 
new spray, "Aramite," is very effec- 
tive. There are a few rot and virus 
diseases found on Cymbidiums. The 
spread of these diseases can be con- 
trolled by proper precautionary 
measures, such as segregating, steri- 
lizing cutting tools, and keeping the 
plants in good health. 

FEEDING 

Fertilizing is a much discussed 
subject. We believe that a compost, 
such as has been recommended, con- 
tains sufficient plant food to last for 
some months. However, if it is de- 
cided to use a fertilizer, it should 
have an acid reaction. 

If a commercial fertilizer is used, 
it should be applied at about one- 
third the strength recommended for 
other plants. Orchids do not like a 
strong fertilizing program. Brands 
frequently used in Southern Cali- 
fornia are Stewart's Ideal Orchid 
Fertilizer, Vigoro, Hyponex, Gav- 
iota or "312," and are applied at 
the rate of two teaspoons to one 
gallon of water about every two 
weeks to a month during the grow- 
ing season. 

An attempt has not been made to 
cover the field completely, but to 
outline a few of the basic procedures 
in the general culture of Cymbid- 
iums. It must be understood that 
culture may vary greatly according 
to locality. Good common growing 
sense is always a valuable asset. 

If you are in a locality where 
others are growing Cymbidiums, 
find a grower who is doing a good 
job and have him guide you 
wherever possible. Always bear in 
mind, too, that there is no short 
cut to good culture. You will get 
from your plants just what you give 
them in good care. 



Swallows in flight are recalled by 
this array of cymbidiums from 
Fred Stewart, of San Gabriel, 
California. 



10 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 




APRIL-MAY, 1963 



11 



visable to leave them open at night, 
to about l/ 2 to 1" opening. It 
should be remembered, however, 
that while Cattleyas require a maxi- 
mum amount of air at all times, they 
should not be subjected to draughts, 
as this causes the plants to dry out 
too quickly, and it is also likely to 
chill them. 



POTTING MEDIA 

Orchids have been grown in just 
about everything imaginable. How- 
ever, osmunda is still the easiest 
medium in which to grow Cattleyas. 
(I said easiest to grow plants in.) 

Disadvantages: Expensive to pur- 
chase; takes longer to pot, therefore 
more labor; takes experienced per- 
sonnel to do a good, uniform pot- 
ting job; you need machinery and 
labor to chop it up to the required 
size and to screen it before use; and 
it is dirty to work with. 

Advantages: A good grade of 
brown or yellow osmunda will last 
two to three years; it is not sub- 
ject to mycelium fungus; you do not 
have to feed plants, although it 
helps; it will retain moisture for a 
longer period of time than bark; 
and osmunda does not need any 
additives. 

Fir bark has become quite popu- 
lar in the culture of orchid plants of 
all kinds. 

Disadvantages: You should add 
Dolomite lime to adjust the pH and 
add calcium and magnesium; it has 
to be fertilized with a high nitrogen 
fertilizer — 3-1-1; it is subject to my- 
celium fungus which seems to be a 
serious problem to keep under con- 
trol; it is a good host for millepedes 
which tend to break down the ma- 
terial. 

Advantages: Inexpensive; easy to 
pot and requires less labor; pots 
faster than osmunda; clean to use; 
lasting quality without fungus or 
millepedes infection is two years, 
growth is phenomenal; and there is 
practically no damp off in seedlings 
out of flask. 

For adult Cattleyas use % to ^" 
size clean uniform bark. For seed- 
lings use l / 2 to y%" size. It is im- 
portant to feed when using fir bark. 
Nitrogen is the most important ele- 
ment required. Frequent light feed- 
ings with 3-1-1 fertilizer are better 
than occasional heavy feeding. To 
keep the millepedes under control, 
Dieldren in liquid or granules is 
recommended. If liquid, use at time 
of watering, if granules, sprinkle on 




top of the fir bark in the pots. 

Here we go again. We have been 
experimenting with a medium con- 
sisting of 1/2 to 1/3 course red- 
wood shavings to l/ 2 to 2 /3 fir bark. 
We hope this material will tend to 
control the mycelium fungus, as it 
does not seem to grow in redwood. 

Another product we are experi- 
menting with is coarse redwood 
bark, called Palco Wool, medium 
grade. This is more expensive than 
fir bark, acid in nature, therefore it 
requires addition of dolomite lime. 
It pots about like Osmunda and re- 
tains moisture well. It also has to 
be fertilized, does not seem to be 
subject to mycelium fungus. Root 
action in this medium seems to be 
good. Time will tell. 

POTTING 

When do I repot my orchids? 
This question is asked constantly. It 
must be remembered that the ma- 
jority of Cattleyas today are com- 
plex hybrids, with little or no rest- 



Two prize winning Cattleya en- 
tries in a recent Orchid Society of 
Southern California show by Arm- 
acost and Royston. 



ing period. Repotting is usually 
done when the plants are through 
blooming, are crowding the inside 
of the pot, or growing over the 
edge. The best time is when there 
are signs of renewed root action, 
such as roots commencing to grow 
from the base of the new growth. 
Whenever possible it is best to wait 
for the new growth to make up, and 
pot just as the new roots start to 
show at the base of the rhizome. 
However, if the medium is broken 
down or sour it is best to move the 
plant into fresh material, as long as 
it is not in bud. In some cases root 
action will start before the growth 
is made up. It is best to pot at that 
time to save the roots. 

In any case, potting should not 
be done just prior to blooming. This 
will prevent the flowers from de- 
veloping properly. 

Fir bark should be moist when 
repotting, and allow plenty of space 



APRIL-MAY. 1963 



13 



for the plant to grow for at least 
two years. 



WATERING AND FERTILIZING 

After repotting the plants do not 
require too much water until root 
action develops. However, they 
should be given frequent overhead 
sprayings during bright warm 
weather. Once root action starts 
they should be watered thoroughly. 
Depending on the weather, large 
plants in 7 inch pots and up may go 
from one to two weeks between 
waterings. Smaller sized pots may 
be watered from once to twice a 
week. A word of caution is neces- 
sary on watering in fir bark. We 
have noticed that the first six months 
or so, new material does not seem 
to hold water very long. However, 
after a period of six months to a 
year, when the bark begins to break- 
down it will hold moisture for a 
longer period, although on the sur- 
face it appears to be dry. Be careful 
at this time not to over water. 

When the pseudo bulbs appear 
dry and shrivelled, it may be due to 
loss of roots, insufficient water, or 
lack of humidity in the greenhouse. 

As I have mentioned before, 
when growing in fir bark feeding is 
a must. Use a 3-1-1 fertilizer. This 
may be used every other watering, 
or a half strength solution every 
watering. 

CONTROL OF PESTS 

The most likely insect pests found 
in Cattleya orchids are thrips, green- 
fly or aphids, scale, millepedes, 
slugs, snails, mealy bugs and ants. 

Cookes Slug and Snail will keep 
these animals under control. Diel- 
dren is recommended for millepedes 
and ants. Malathion spray should 
take care of the rest of the insects. 
Of course there are other insecticides 
that will do the job just as well, 
possibly better. Consult the nursery- 
man in your area. 

An easy one to use is called Smoke 
Fume 103. It comes in a cardboard 
container and consists of Tetraethyl 
Dithiopyrophosphate 15%. Close 
up the greenhouse late in the eve- 
ning. Shut off all fans. Punch a 
hole in the top of the container, 
insert the fuse, light it, and it is all 
set to do the job. Next morning 
open the vents and air out the 
greenhouse and turn on your fans. 
This will control spider mites (red 
spider), aphids, whitefly, and some 
species of mealy bugs, thrips and 
soft brown scale. 



A I lure of the Cypripediums 



THE LADY SLIPPER 
MAY OR MAY NOT BE 
YOUR FIRST ORCHID 
LOVE, BUT HER MANY 
MOODS WILL WIN YOU 



by Robert D. Jones 



SOME people are immediately at- 
tracted to the Cypripediums the 
first time they see them, but 
generally the primary reaction is to 
look elsewhere in the orchid family 
for their "first love." Most people 
will eventually return for a second 
look at this delightful genus and 
they begin to notice how infinitely 
varied are the color combinations 
and how interesting these variations 
are as they look from plant to plant. 
They notice that this is a truly dif- 
ferent flower — like no other genera 
of the orchid family. Although it 
took no genius to give this group the 
common name of "Lady Slipper," 
doesn't it seem like a stroke of 
genius when we see the flower, for 
even a child is intrigued by the name 
and the slipper shape of the pouch? 

For many years this genera has 
been the favorite orchid in both the 
large and small orchid collections 
of the English orchid fanciers. Al- 
though this has not been true here, 
we commercial people notice that 
the interest in Cypripediums con- 
tinues to increase each year. Much 
of this interest is due to new intro- 
ductions of our American growers. 

In the new crosses we notice the 



colors have been brightened and 
more distinct patterns are apparent 
in the large dorsal sepal which forms 
the background of the flower. There 
are lovely chocolate browns, purple 
reds, and rich reds in the Cypripe- 
diums now making their appearance. 
Examine the spotted types and you 
will notice that these wine red or 
mahogany spots are raised or em- 
bossed on the white dorsal sepal, 
giving a real third dimensional ap- 
pearance. Many people like the pas- 
tel colored flowers in green or yel- 
low, or green and white stripes. No 
collection should be without the all 
white flowers for their chaste ap- 
pearance is always refreshing. 

ADDS SPARKLE 

A Cypripedium plant in bloom 
adds sparkle to any room in the 
home. The small white flowers are 
intriguing and a conversation piece 
on the coffee table. Some of the 
flowers of the Italian Species have a 



The spectacular Cypripedium, 
"Point Lobos" was developed by 
Rod McLellan Co., of South San 
Francisco, Calif. 



14 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 




APRIL-MAY,. 1.963 



15 



The Big 
Show- Off 

17 th Annual 
San Diego County Orchid Show 



Place: 

Date: 

Hours 



Conference Building, Balboa Park. 
5-6-7. 

Friday, April 5, from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. for Garden 

Center Benefit Preview. Donation of $1 per person for 

center. 

Saturday, April 6, 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. Regular Show. 

Sunday, April 7, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
Theme: Enchanted Gardens. 

Entry Registration will be held Thursday, April 4, from 6 p.m. 
to 10:30 p.m. and Friday, April 5, from 7 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Late 
entries may be displayed, but will not compete. 
Award judging of all orchid genera will be by the American 
Orchid Society, Cymbidium Society and Orchid Digest Corp. cer- 
tified judges. 

The San Diego County Orchid Society will sponsor 14 special 
trophies for amateur, novice-amateur, commercial and open com- 
petitions for exhibits and individual plants. Exhibitors need not 
be members of the Orchid Society. 



distinctive oriental look which is 
completely at home with the modern 
trend in using oriental design in our 
homes. A sojourn of a month in the 
house does not hurt these really 
hardy plants if we make sure to 
keep them always well watered. The 
beautiful foliage of these plants 
makes them fantastically useful 
house plants. 

The Cypripedium is an outstand- 
ing corsage flower because of its 
durability and long life. Many wear- 
ers have reported using the same 
corsage for several occasions over as 
long as two weeks when the flowers 
are put in water between times. As 
cut flowers or when left on the plant 
they last from four to six weeks. 

One maker of automobiles claims 
they have "A Rocket for every 
Pocket." Likewise, we Cypripedium 
producers have good plants to suit 
the pockets of all and the investment 
and returns in enjoyment increase 
each year. 

NEW PLANTS 

Where will we grow our new 
plants? Certainly a greenhouse, 
large or small, that can be main- 



tained at 60° night temperature is 
the most satisfactory place for these 
plants. However, in mild climates 
such as San Diego County, they can 
be grown in shady areas similar to 
those where Camellias grow well 
outdoors. We have found that they 
can also be grown in homes because 
they are shade loving and do not re- 
quire too high humidity. 

Although these plants really have 
a few cultural requirements com- 
pared to some orchids, these should 
be considered in more detail. 

LIGHT. Outdoors they must be 
in the shade of tall trees and allowed 
to have only early morning sunlight 
— not afternoon sunlight. In the 
greenhouse a shady spot with no 
direct light is desirable. Practically, 
if one holds out his hand and it 
casts a distinct shadow it is too 
bright for these plants. A very slight 
shadow is about right. An east win- 
dow in the house that receives early 
morning sun will be a suitable loca- 
tion. 

WATER. Cyps must be kept wet 
at all times. The roots will not tol- 
erate a dry condition. Most people 



who start growing Cyps after they 
have been growing Cattleya orchids 
have a tendency to underwater Cyps 
because they are so accustomed to 
allowing the Cattleyas to dry out 
between waterings. 

POTTING MEDIUM. The pot- 
ting material should be porous so 
that the water moves freely through 
the pot. Many growers are quite 
successful in using flr bark with a 
particle size of y 4 " to which about 
10% dry oak leaves has been added. 
Fine fir bark to which about 15% 
coarse sand is added by volume is 
also successfully used. Some grow- 
ers use only fir bark. Most of the 
potting mixtures sold by commercial 
growers for Cyps are well tested and 
very foolproof. 

TEMPERATURE. The Spring 
period from March 15 th to June 
15 th is critical because cool nights 
are required to insure flower buds 
forming in the Fall. The night tem- 
perature should be no higher than 
60° and it can be 5° to 15° lower 
without damage. During the rest of 
the year 60° is fine and a little 
higher will do no harm. Day tem- 
peratures can range from 70° to 
90° and 100° occasionally will not 
hurt. The plants will stand to 32° 
F. outdoors. 

FERTILIZING Most of the 
modern fir bark mixtures require 
fertilizing if we are to be successful 
growing these plants. Liquid ferti- 
lizers that have a composition of 
about 25% to 30% Nitrogen, 9% 
or 10% Phosphate, and 9% or 10% 
Potash are very good. However, 
slight variations of this formula are 
all right. 

Every other watering should be 
with a light fertilizer solution. Be 
sure to water heavily between fer- 
tilizer applications to prevent solu- 
ble salt accumulation. The root 
action of a plant is a good indica- 
tor of the health of a Cypripedium. 
If a plant has very few roots it 
should be repotted. It may also indi- 
cate that you are giving too much 
fertilizer. A lot of roots may indi- 
cate that the plant is healthy but 
could use a little more fertilizer to 
reach its maximum growth. 

Cypripediums should be repotted 
immediately after flowering. Some 
mixes last two years but others seem 
to break down at the end of one 
year. If in doubt ask the commer- 
cial grower whether the mixture 
will be all right for two years. 



16 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



How To Enter Your Prize 
Bloom In a Flower Show 



One Contest Whets Your 
Interest - Here Are The 
Mysterious Entry Rites 



NO ONE ever forgets their first flower show, 
mine was a rose show in 1951 . I had joined 
the San Diego Rose Society the previous fall and 
had made reams of notes at each meeting, had at- 
tended a rose pruning demonstration, to say noth- 
ing of talking the arm off of a lot of patient 
people. 

I carefully followed all of the good cultural 
practices I had learned and suddenly it was just 
days before show time. 

Since hybrid tea roses must be shown disbudded 
I had been flicking out all tiny side buds with a 
toothpick. Now I hand picked aphids too as I 
checked the rose garden for any overlooked side 
buds, removing them completely with a pocket 
knife. The judges must not see any stubs or scars. 

Deep, deep watering is especially important 
during the week before the show so that the 
blooms will be crisp and stay fresh through the 
show. 

Show roses must be immaculate, so the day be- 
fore the show I went through the garden with a 
jar of vinegar and ivater plus some paper towels, 
washing the leaves of all possible entries. It is 
much easier to clean the foliage of dust and spray 
residue while the bloom is on the plant. 

In the evening I started cutting the roses that 
were from one-third to one-half open with stems 
at least six times the length of the bud, putting 
them directly into the bucket of water I carried 
with me. This I put in a dark corner of the garage 
overnight. 

Very early next morning I cut any other possible 



entries, added them to my bucket of water. So, 
with my roses in water I gathered together sug- 
gested grooming aids and headed for the shoiv 
area. 

These aids were a fine water color brush for 
coaxing petals into a symmetrical circle, a pair of 
manicure scissors for trimming any damaged 
leaves and a nylon stocking for cleaning foliage 
of any overlooked spray residue. 

Members of the show committee were on hand- 
with copies of the show schedule, bundles of entry 
tags, and containers set up in which to put the rose 
entries. Before placing each rose in the container 
of water I snipped a quarter inch off of each stem 
and made use of the grooming aids as necessary. 

Some rose varieties develop pairs of outer petals 
with white streaks. These must be removed — do 
it last. I then attached a proper entry tag to each 
container, took a deep breath and gave them to the 
entry committee. 

A few hours later I learned that I had- won a 
few ribbons — one of them blue. 

Needless to say, each show since then has found 
me in the show area bright and early. I've learned 
since that grandifloras are entered strictly as they 
grow — no tampering here. Floribunda sprays 
should have blooms in every stage from green 
buds to full blown flowers, with no flowers re- 
moved. The stems in both cases should be long 
enough to be in balance with the fioiver head and 
with two sets of leaves at least. 
P.S. See you at the shoiv and may all your ribbons 
be blue. 

Nettie Trott 

San Diego Rose Society 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 



17 



The Wearin' Of The Green Made Easier 



Hints On 
Lawn Care 

By Foster Parrent 



THE loose aggregates and fir- 
bark leave much to be desired 
when your backyard ground 
cover does double duty as a setting 
for backyard plantings and play 
yard for the children, so let us put 
in a plug and some comment on 
backyard lawns that are rugged and 
eye-pleasing at the same time. 

The average size backyard of 50 
to 60 feet wide and 40 to 50 feet in 
length can be planted around the 
perimeter with shrubs, flowers and 
a few trees and still leave a fairly 
large lawn area for the kiddies to 
romp and play on — and your lawn 
will hold up very well providing it 
has good basic lawn materials to 
start with. 

The mixture that seems to hold up 
best in the yards that we take care 
of is a lawn of about equal amounts 
of dichondra and Bermuda grass 
planted on a good sandy topsoil of 
4 inch depth, fertilized in March, 
June and September with a fertilizer 
concocted around an activated 
sewer sludge base and regular water- 
ing to favor the dichondra, or fine 
grasses. 

We usually water three times a 
week (like Monday morning, Wed- 
nesday morning, and Friday after- 
noon or Saturday morning). Each 
watering should be sufficient to 
really saturate the first one inch of 
soil. This will usually be sufficient 
to keep the lawn soil actually damp 
to 6 inches deep, which we have 
found to be ideal in maintaining a 
really lush bermuda and dichondra 
lawn. 

This watering situation is prob- 
ably the most important there is in 
keeping a lawn in a healthy condi- 
tion. Usually you will find that 
leaving your regular pop-up head 
sprinklers on for one-half hour to- 
tal each separate watering day will 
get the lawn wet to one-inch deep. 
Rainbird type sprinklers set on l/ 2 



circle coverage and 25-30 feet radius 
circle should water one double 
watering to wash fertilizer in, and 
one additional regular amount of 
water the day after fertilizing to 
keep fertilizer from burning. 

Regardless of the type of sprink- 
ler system, you should check the 
actual lawn soil for depth of wet 
area so that you can increase or de- 
crease the length of time you run 
your sprinkler. This includes the 
portable type sprinklers. However, 
let me say that your best investment 
in maintaining a good lawn is a 
good sprinkling system. 

TOUGH SOILS 

A word here about hard soils like 
those in Clairemont and much of 
La Jolla. Get one of the many liquid 
soil conditioners at your local nurs- 
ery and use it as per instructions. 
Remember — it takes water to make 
the soil conditioner work properly. 
We always put soil conditioner on 
all of our newly planted lawns just 
before the first watering. 

The dichondra and bermuda mix- 
ture lawn will do its best if mowed 
at mower settings of ll/ 2 inches on 
power mowers and about 1 inch on 
hand mowers. To keep the lawn 
really healthy and neat you should 



Table Topics 

. Tea 

Balboa Park Auditorium, House 
of Hospitality, Balboa Park, 
San Diego, California. 

Thursday, April 18, 1963 
12 to 4 p.m. 

Table setting competition — 30 
tables entered. Sponsored by 
Aurora Unit of the Auxiliary 
to the Salvation Army, Door of 
Hope Hospital and Home. 



mow once a week from April 
through September and once every 
two weeks the rest of the year. How- 
ever, you may find that the once a 
week deal is more than you have 
time for, or money for if you have 
a professional gardener. In these 
instances, every two weeks all the 
time will do the job very well. Of 
course, the lawn will look a little 
ragged toward the middle of the sec- 
ond week, but you will certainly 
have a deeper-rooted lawn because 
of the longer wait between mowings. 

EDGING NECESSARY 

Always edge your lawn every two 
weeks even if you have lawn header 
boards, cement edgings or the like. 
(Sorry, but I cannot recommend 
aluminum edgings). If you have 
edging boards of some other lawn 
confiner, make sure that it goes 6 
inches deep and that you use a disc- 
type edger to keep grass from grow- 
ing over the edge. Even a tough 
lawn like Bermuda and dichondra 
should be sprayed for lawn moths 
and cut worms a minimum of June, 
July and September. If you have a 
rye lawn or one of the bent or blue 
grass lawns, spray once a month 
March through October. 

Once a year in October or Novem- 
ber, you should shave mow all ber- 
muda lawns down to about a half- 
inch if your have dichondra in it, 
and lower if there is no dichondra. 
Reseed the bare spots with dichondra 
at double the regular rate for a new 
lawn, and cover the seeded spots 
with about I/3" of good sacked steer 
manure. 

The rest of the lawn should have 
weed-free steer put on at the rate 
of one sack of steer to each 200 
square feet of area. This manure 
should be swept into the lawn so 
that it makes contact with the 
ground and provides a cover for the 
natural existing dichondra seed. 
Water twice a day for one week, 
then once a day for the next two 
weeks. Then go back to your regu- 
lar schedule of watering. You won't 
have to mow for a month to six 
weeks, but trim those edges. 

In the winter time you will have 
to check the lawn soil before you 
water. If the ground is wet, don't 
water. If it is damp, water lightly 
and check the ground for one inch 
depth being wet. Water in the 
morning only through the months 
of November through February, or 
you will have some lawn rot and/or 
mould. 



18 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



You /ire invited 

TAKE TOUR 
OF COUNTY 

GARDENS 

RANCHO SANTA FE 
GARDEN CLUB TOUR 

April 6-7, 1963. 

Hours: 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. 

Tour starts from Garden Club 
in Rancho Santa Fe. 

Transportation between the 
four homes and one garden on 
the tour will be furnished by 
club members or their husbands. 

Homes on the tour are those 
of Messrs. and Mmes. Gilford 
C. Ewing, Harrie Taylor, 
Horace L. Blackman, James P. 
Witherow and J. M. French. 

Food and refreshments will 
be offered guests during the 
tour. 

Donation : Groups of people 
over 10, $3 each, or $3.50 for 
individuals. 

CLAIREMONT WOMAN'S 
CLUB GARDEN SECTION 

April 6, 1963. 

Hours: 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. 

Tour starts from 2635 Grand- 
view, San Diego 17. 

The five homes to be visited 
are the gardens of Messrs. and 
Mmes. Eugene Adair, Sam Lip- 
sett, Charles Molnar, Fred W. 
Strong, Leroy M. Short and 
George E. Cooke. 

A garden plant sale is 
planned at the Molnar home. 
Refreshments will be served at 
the Adair home. 
Donation: $1 per person. 

ST. JAMES-BY-THE-SEA 
EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

April 20, 1963. 

Buses will leave every 1 5 min- 
utes from the church at Silver- 
ado and Eads, in La Jolla. 

Tea will be served following 
the tour at the La Jolla Beach 
and Tennis Club. 

Donation: $2.50 per person. 




ROLAND HOYT RECOMMENDS: 



A Forgotten Beauty 



VELTHEIMIA viridifolia is a 
bulbous perennial and a very 
old plant that has been known 
to gardens for considerably more 
than a hundred years. It was named 
for the Count Ferdinand of Vel- 
theim, an early patron of botany. 
Why it has been neglected all these 
years in a country where good peren- 
nial species are at a premium, is 
answered only in embarassment and 
with awkward stance. 

Here is something of a spectacle. 
A cluster of bulbs in flower is al- 



ways arresting, while the vivid viri- 
dian-green of the great, wavy, shin- 
ing leaves, longer at the base and 
shorter above, accents the name deri- 
vation. They are a delight for cool- 
ness of vegetation and quiet warmth 
in bloom nine to ten months of the 
year. The leaves are somewhat 
fleshy and spread out in a hand- 
some arc to form a rather tight 
mass. 

All winter they are firm and dur- 
able, but after flowering the mass 
tends to go flabby until it sinks into 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 



19 



PARADE OF ROSES 

Annual Spring Show 



Ti 



HE thirty-sixth annual Spring Rose Show of the San Diego Rose Society, 
Inc. will be held in the Electric Building, Balboa Park, on Saturday and Sun- 
day, April 13 and 14, 1963, the Easter week-end. The show promises to be 
one of the most beautiful ever presented here, and the largest all rose show 
held anywhere in the United States. 

Unlike other sections of the country where June is the traditional Month 
of roses, San Diego's best rose month is April, and rose gardens are usually 
at their very best about the 15th of April. Since Easter falls on the 14th of 
April, the rose group is proud to present to San Diego an Easter "Parade of 
Roses." 

One large exhibit room of the Electric Building will display the cut com- 
petitive blooms, and a second large hall will house the arrangement section. 
Also displaying with the Rose Society for the first time will be the Potter's 
Guild, and the Art Guild from the Spanish Village Art Center. 

The rose Queen has been chosen from entries submitted by Bethel 199, 
Job's Daughters. She is lovely Miss Marilyn Lee Moresette. All members of 
her Bethel will assist her by hostessing at the show, wearing formals and look- 
ing even lovelier than the roses. 

Commercial displays will be on view, and a program of lectures and films 
on roses and rose culture will be scheduled throughout the two day event. 

Rose entries may be made by anyone who grows his own roses, and there 
is no entry fee. The society urges every rose lover to enter his blooms, and 
reminds the prospective exhibitor that it only takes one bloom entry to carry 
away the Best Bloom trophy. Ribbons will be awarded in all classes, and there 
are thirty-four trophy classes, all but five open to anyone. These five are open 
to members of the San Diego Rose Society only, but anyone may qualify for 
these five also by joining the society. Membership is open to any interested 
person. Jean Kenneally 



dormancy by early summer. They 
want moisture during growth, but 
the more thoroughly the bulb mass 
is allowed to sleep in dryness over 
summer, the sounder they will per- 
form throughout the producing sea- 
son, foliage and the flowers to fol- 
low. 

This period should be from two 
to three months midsummer when 
the bulb mass will be better off 



Roland Hoyt is a member of ASLA 
and author of Ornamental Plants for 
Subtropical Regions. 



shaded . . . easily done in a tub, not 
so convenient as grown in the 
ground where it will be depending 
on neighboring vegetation for 
overcover. In this case, plant types 
which require minimum moisture 
will serve best. 

The flowers are showy in a quiet 
way, the florets erect at first, then 
pendulous in a dense, oblong-coni- 
cal spike or head. This is held at 
18-24 inches, but actually at 30 
inches in this photograph, usually 
25 to 50 or more cylindrical tubes, 
rosy purple with a faint yellow dot- 
ting that enlivens. 



The buds are at first erect and 
green-tipped, then lavender-touched 
as they begin to sag . . . finally, the 
floret fully opened, completely sus- 
pended, with the yellow anthers just 
showing. The blooming can be 
more or less controlled for any time 
here between December 15 to April 
1st . . . regulation consisting of 
moisture and its timing and length 
of dormancy allowed. 

The plant flourishes in a fertile, 
sandy soil with added leaf mould or 
spent steer manure, although they 
are not at all demanding. The 
blooming will be longer and the 
foliage firmer in partial shade, again 
not absolutely required. The bulb is 
large, as much as five or six inches 
through, ultimately in a snug mass 
that tends to push up out of the 
ground in growth . . . hence the 
summer cover. They are hardy into 
warm temperature regions of cli- 
mate, adapting to the shorter season 
with later flowerings and going into 
winter dormant, if handled correctly. 
They will stand for a heavy mulch 
as taken still farther into frost, but 
reach a point when they must be 
lifted. 

Viable seed is produced rather 
freely . . . offsets to the bulb less 
generously, while according to John 
Weathers, under English conditions, 
the well ripened leaves may be in- 
serted into sandy soil to produce new 
bulbils at the base. The writer has 
flowered these the third to fourth 
year from seed, although a larger 
bulb is required to furnish the heads 
shown in the illustration. This par- 
ticular plant is ten or twelve years 
old, grown in tubs, divided once. 

It is not in any way an under- 
statement to say the nursery trade is 
in dereliction of its obligation to the 
gardening public and to horticul- 
ture in general, when it passes by a 
plant such as this which is so easily, 
if not quickly propagated and 
brought to saleable size and which 
offers so much for so little attention 
. . . there seem to be no diseases or 
serious pests . . . only those who 
steal the spikes. The only nurseries 
on the west coast known by the 
writer to have supplied this species 
are Carl Starker Gardens, Jennings 
Lodge, Oregon and our own De- 
Haan's Shoreline Nurseries in Leu- 
cadia, California . . . greetings and 
gratitude to both of you from all of 
us . . . exempli gratia. 

Roland S. Hoyt 



20 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



/ said 'Lilies' and he sent a Joshua-tree 



STRANGE 
KIN 



By Donald Betts 

TO look at the sepulchral beauty of the 
Bermuda Easter Lily, one would never 
guess the number of skeletons lined up in 
its family closet. But skeletons there are by the 
dozens in this huge family and some are famous 
in their own right. 

Those who cater to the florist trade are work- 
ing feverishly to force into bloom this famous 
Easter Lily, or Lilium longiflorum, variety ex- 
imium, whose pure white flowers and delicate 
fragrance reflect so well the annual ritual of 
awakening Nature. 

The hundred-or-so species of true lilies scat- 
tered throughout the temperate zone are well 
known, but what of the skeletons? 

The Joshua-tree is one such skeleton, difficult 
as it may seem to believe. This spectral indi- 
vidual is said to have been named by the Mor- 
mons crossing the desert. Perhaps the strange, 
uplifted branches and massive trunk reminded 
them of Joshua commanding the sun to stand 
still. The Joshua-tree is Yucca brevijolia. 
Therefore, all other yuccas are members of the 
lily family, which includes the well-known 
Spanish-dagger and our own desert candle. 

Among the 2,500 species in the Lily family, 
the Liliaceae, there is also the dragon-tree. 

The dragon-tree, Dracaena draco, of the 
Canary Islands is a relative of the lily. Here is 
another extremity in contrast frequently seen 
in cultivation all over Southern California. 

There is a handsome specimen on the ocean 
side of the Art Center in La Jolla. The Latin 
name of this plant refers to a "female dragon" 
and was given because of the dried sap, said in 
olden days to resemble dragon's blood. 

Succulent enthusiasts are quite familiar with 
the many species of aloe found in such profu- 
sion in the gardens of Southern California, but 
who would guess that these strange, fleshy- 
leaved plants are also related to lilies? 

This is true of two other well-known genera 
of succulents, small enough to be found in our 
gardens, Gasteria and Hauorthia. Yet each of 



these fascinating plants is closely tied in to the 
lily family. 

The snake-plant or Sansevieria, those rigid- 
erect, barred leaves, potted for our patios, also 
belongs to the lily group, again illustrating the 
ramification of form this family can take. 

For a change of pace, the entire onion genus, 
Allium, and Asparagus, all the asparagus 
"ferns" which we know so well, are not ferns 
at all, but lilies. 

Getting down to an old-fashioned garden, 
we find other lilies that are not generally known 
as such, hyacinths, tulips, for instance, and 
Hemerocallis, the yellow day-lily. 

One more easily identifiable is also one of 
the most delicately beautiful plants of the lily 
family. It blooms on the arid wastes of our 
California desert lands, often as the onlv form 
of plant life on barren stretches of sun-baked 
sand . . . the desert-lily, Hesperocallis. The bulb 
of this more nearly conformable lily is set so 
deeply, that the ordinary spoiler will take only 
the seed and thus will not destroy the perpetu- 
ation of the species. 

Then there is Fritillaria, another accordant to 
type, including the Chocolate-lily or Mission- 
bells. Van Gogh, the Dutch painter, has done 
a moving cluster of this plant in a brass bowl, 
an inexpensive copy of which hangs against the 
redwood wall of my den and gives me per- 
petual pleasure. Before closing may I also men- 
tion my Mother's favorite flower, lily-of-the- 
valley, which does not flourish here in the 
South. Nor should we forget to include the 
western Mariposa-lily which can be grown here, 
if one really tries. This is Calochortus which 
includes some of the most beautifully marked 
and tinted flowers in the lily family. 

Other well-known members of the family are 
Soloman's-seal, smilax, Indian cucumber-root, 
dog-berry and the common greenbriar of our 
eastern states. The list could go on and on, 
with species indigenous here and to distant 
parts of the world. 

Beyond and on top of all these may be placed 
the 800 species of Amaryllis, the thousand or 
more of Iris and three hundred rushes, just to 
get started and stop ... all closely related and 
gathered botanically under the lily order or 
Liliaceae, cousins, uncles and aunts. What an 
incredible and bewildering variety in plant life 
and this but one order in many! 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 



21 



No matter where you need it — wall, border or dish garden — this family will furnish fine 



COLOR 



ON THE 



ROCKS 



2& 




\x\v 



Aeonium sedifolium 



By Cleoves Hardin 



THE genus Sempervivum con- 
sists of about twenty-five spe- 
cies of small stemless many- 
leaved rosettes native to Central and 
Southern Europe. The individual 
plants are mostly four to six inches 
in diameter but they produce nu- 
merous offsets from the leaf axils 
which form clusters and sometimes 
reach a yard or more in a solid mat. 

They produce the starry pink, 
white, yellow and lavender flowers 
in dense heads in the summer, after 
which the flowering plant dies. They 
are of great interest to alpine gar- 
deners, rock gardeners and have 
much to offer the succulent collector 
as well. They are useful in rock and 
wall gardens, borders, formal gar- 
dens and dish gardens. 

One word of caution for the 
fancier in our area, however. Watch 
for the alkaline around the roots. 
If your sempervivums have begun 
to look unhealthy, pull one out and 
examine for alkaline. If there is 
evidence of alkaline use one table- 
spoon of epsom salts to one cup of 
water and wet thoroughly. Usually 
after this treatment there is no need 
to renew the soil. 

Of the smaller species no one 



22 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



should overlook the S. arachnoi- 
deum whose half-inch rosettes are 
densely covered with cobweb-like 
white hairs or the slightly larger 
darker green species, S. montanum, 
turf forming and known for its 
bright purple flowers. 

Of the larger sempervivums none 
is more popular than S. tectorum var. 
calcareum whose three inch gray- 
green rosettes have a brown tip on 
each leaf or the huge six inch roset- 
tes of S. calcoratum beautifully 
shaded with crimson and lavender 
highlights. 

Yet another S. tectorum, schottii, 
a mat forming rosette with long soft 
leathery leaves, bluish green white 
at the base and red brown at the 
tips with bright pink flowers. 

The list for collectors to choose 
from runs well into a hundred. They 
hybridize readily and one can choose 
from the cobwebiest to a very bril- 
liant ruby jewel of a plant. No other 
plant looks quite so well in a straw- 
berry jar clinging to the side to show 
the depth of their beauty. 

They are very hardy, requiring 
only a token of care, not too hot a 
location and good drainage. Plant 
them so that it is convenient to 
keep all of the dying leaves cleaned 
out. 

Closely related to the hardy Euro- 
pean Sempervivum is a species na- 
tive to North Africa, the Aeonium. 
The Aeoniums are generally small 
shrubby plants with woody stems 
topped with saucer shaped or even 
flat rosettes of attractive fleshy suc- 
culent leaves. Their flowers are 
freely formed in late winter or early 
spring in huge pyramidal clusters of 
yellow, white, pink, red and orange. 

Like other members of the Sem- 
pervivum family the flowering stalk 
of the plant usually dies after flower- 
ing but mostly they produce branches 
or offsets to continue growing. 

Probably the best known is the A. 
arboreum which makes an erect two 
or three foot bushy shrub topped 
with light green rosettes and bright 
yellow flowers. One of the most 
common in our area is the A. ar- 
boreum var. atropurpureum which 
grow profusely in all of their ma- 
hogany red turning black splendor. 

This plant, topped with a pyra- 
mid of yellow flowers, is a beauty to 
behold. This is the one seen most 
often in the crested form; no one 
knows just how it comes about. 



Ik 




Sepervivum arachnoideum 

Of the low growing aeonium 
species with short stems or large 
single rosettes the A. tabulaeforme 
is a fine example of the single type. 
It makes an absolutely flat rosette 
a foot or more in diameter consist- 
ing of hundreds of closely imbri- 
cated green leaves. 

Equally stuning is A. canariense 
whose broad, spoon-shaped leaves 
are covered with white velvety hairs 
and form a single large rosette near- 
ly two feet in diameter. Another 
single one, A. nobile, not so com- 
monly known, whose broad fleshy 
leaves of olive green form a large 
twenty inch rosette topped with an 
immense head of coppery scarlet 
flowers. 

Some of the shrubby ones are the 
A. caespitosum with narrow green 
leaves striped with red and having 
white hairs along the edges. These 
form dense rosettes on stems which 



close up during their resting period. 

Also the A. sedifolium, upright 
type with clusters of rosettes at the 
end of the branch closely resembling 
the A. sedum, the A. lindleyi with 
its thick succulent leaves that hold 
a tablespoon of fluid used to counter- 
act the poisonous rash contracted 
from handling the Euphorbia or 
other irritating cactus. It always 
pays to have a plant of it in the 
garden. 

The Aeonium is one of the easiest 
of all succulents to propagate. They 
will put on air roots along the 
stems of the shrubby ones or if 
the flat ones are to be rooted, just 
cut them off, place upright on a 
piece of old screen wire and they 
will readily root. They are most 
rewarding for the small amount of 
care given them and will show their 
appreciation in a profusion of flow- 
ers. 




Complete Selection of 
CACTI, SUCCULENTS & EPIPHYLLUMS 

LESSAR CACTUS NURSERY 



396 N. Highway 101, Encinitas - Phone 753-5192 - 1 Mile North of Encinitas Traffic Light 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 



-23 



promptly, it will usually die back 
when uncovered. 



A Calendar 



ROSES 



*Look for potted bushes soon 

*Plastic covering warms 

reluctant bare root plants 

*Don't forget the mulching 

^Follow set spray schedule 



SINCE it is a little too late to buy 
and plant bare-root roses in the 
San Diego area, soon you can buy 
roses growing in cans at the nursery 
and make your selection at a time 
when you can also admire and evalu- 
ate the blooms. 

Contrary to the opinion expressed 
by some, it is often better to buy 
potted bushes since vigorous growth 
is already in evidence. Several words 
of caution, however. Buy only five 
gallon cans; the smaller ones do not 
give enough space for adequate root 
growth. Some dealers pot left-over 
bushes which haven't sold and the 
growth might be weak and under- 
nourished. Be sure that there are 
no dead canes and that the bud 
union looks healthy. 

Determine the composition of the 
potting mixture and prepare the soil 
surrounding the planting hole to 
about the same density. A lump of 
clay planted in loose soil will be 
very difficult to water and nourish 
adequately and a porous ball of 
earth from the can placed in dense 
soil will create a water-logged sump 
inimical to plant health. 

By this time all your bare-root 
roses should have been planted. If 



*/ 



Care 



the soil is well drained and the pre- 
cautions mentioned in the last issue 
of this magazine have been observed, 
usually there is no trouble. Some- 
times, however, in spite of every- 
thing, there will be some bushes 
which are reluctant to break into 
growth. 

Try a loose plastic covering to in- 
crease the heat and humidity sur- 
rounding the canes, but if the sun is 
bright, allow free circulation of air 
to avoid over heating. Wet peat 
moss or similar material hilled up 
around the canes for several inches 
and kept moist, is also good. Irri- 
gate with a very dilute solution of a 
liquid fertilizer, about one or two 
teaspoons per gallon. When growth 
is started, remove the protective 
covering gradually to allow new 
shoots to harden. If a new shoot 
does not develop green color rather 



PLANT NUTRITION 

Plant nutrition is usually con- 
sidered to be a difficult subject. 
Really it is not complex. The ideal 
nutrient medium is a dilute solution 
containing all the essential elements. 
Those which need to be added to 
local soils are nitrogen, phosphorus, 
potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron 
and sulfur. The other elements need- 
ed are called trace elements and are 
usually present in sufficient quantity. 

The best method of regular fer- 
tilizing, if you have the time and 
patience, is by frequent foliar feed- 
ing. Using a hose-end sprayer, ap- 
ply a prepared soluble mix once 
every 2 or 3 days in the morning at 
about one-fourth the recommended 
concentration. If this is too fre- 
quent for you, do it about once every 
two weeks at recommended strength. 

Do not take short cuts by mixing 
insecticide with the fertilizer. 

There are many good liquid fer- 
tilizers on the market and one which 
is particularly recommended by the 
San Diego Rose Society is a local 
product — Country Squire Rose Food. 
This product is compounded with 
equal quantities of nitrogen, phos- 
phorus and potassium (8-8-8) and 
contains other essential elements so 
often lacking in prepared mixtures. 

Use foliar feeding on your new 
bushes as well as the established 
ones. If, in addition, you wish to 
use a solid fertilizer on the surface 
of the soil, apply this about once a 
month but withhold from the new 
plants until a month or so after the 
first blooming period. Try to find a 
fertilizer with a minimum of chlor- 
ide. For the first 2 or 3 months 
with established bushes, it is well to 
use a little extra nitrogen in the form 
of ammonium nitrate (use with 
care), ammonium sulphate or 
ground hoof and horn. This en- 
courages the appearance of basal 
shoots so necessary to prolong the 
life of the plant. 

If you live in a high humidity 
area, such as right along the Coast, 
mulching might not be necessary 
but it is essential in other locations. 
If you haven't already mulched — get 
busy. Lots of water from now on 
will repay you with good roses, even 
if your soil does not drain very well. 
In the latter instance it is necessary 
to keep the salt content of the soil 
below dangerous limits. Nothing is 
better than rain but unfortunately 



24 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



our otherwise beautiful climate is 
usually deficient in this commodity. 

SPRAY DAILY 

Having started your spray pro- 
gram it is important that you main- 
tain it on a regular schedule. Acti- 
Dione-PM for mildew and rust and 
Cygon (dimethoate) systemic, with 
occasional use of dust for chewing 
insects will be adequate. Use Acti- 
Dione-PM at about one-fifth, or less, 
of the recommended strength every 
few days, Cygon about once every 
3 or 4 weeks at recommended 
strength and dust when necessary. 
Do not mix any of these materials 
and do not use a spreader. For the 
lazy rose grower, there are all-pur- 
pose mixtures to be used every one 
or two weeks but better control is- 
obtained by preventive more fre- 
quent attention. 

You have by now realized that 
these recommendations will result in 
your spraying the roses practically 
every morning with something. This 
is true, but with hose-end sprayers, 
the job will take only a few min- 
utes to cover any reasonable number 
of roses and the result will be really 
spectacular. 

A final note concerns disbudding. 
Almost all roses come more than 
one to a stem. As soon as side buds 
appear they can be rubbed off very 
easily and the resulting single bloom 
will be much better for it. For show 
purposes, hybrid teas must be dis- 
budded while grandifloras and flori- 
bundas should not. 

Donald A. Wilson 

Vice-President, 

S. D. Rose Society 



• BEGONIAS 

^Crushed fir bark potting 
soil substitute 

^Prepare and dry pots well 

*Cut long, stringy stems 

*Hardy pendant cane noted 

BEGONIA growers should be as 
busy as spring house cleaners. 
They lay in a good supply of light 
porous potting soil. Leafmold is 
hard to get but crushed fir bark is 
a good substitute. Combine with 
good top soil or compost, a slow act- 
ing fertilizer such as hoof-and-horn, 



ROSE GROWERS . . . 

YOUR ROSES WILL REALLY PERFORM WITH 
COUNTRY SQUIRE ROSE FOOD! 



Country Squire Rose Food is THE one that has been tested 
and approved by THE SAN DIEGO ROSE SOCIETY . . . 

This chemist-developed society-approved formula 8.8.8 is 
now available at most better nurseries throughout San Diego 
. . . ask your nurseryman for it. If he doesn't yet stock it, 
have him drop us a card and we'll deliver the order within 
two days. 



wrue lo . COUNTRY SQUIRE 

FERTILIZERS 

P.O. Box 16, La Jolla, California 



G. S. JOHNSON ROSE NURSERY 

8549 MAGNOLIA AVENUE, SANTEE, CALIFORNIA 
Corner Magnolia & Prospect in Santee — On Highway 67 

17 years in same location 

Phone: 444-5467 

ROSE SPECIALISTS 

Roses now blooming in cans . . . Largest Selection of Varieties in 
Southern California . . . Plant from cans all year 

ALSO GENERAL NURSERY STOCK 

OPEN 7 DAYS — 8:00 A.M. TO 5:30 P.M. 





ZOO PLANT TOURS — Copies of California Garden confaining Parts I and 
2 still available. (Part I — Aug. -Sept. '62 issue; Part 2 — Oct-Nov. issue.) 
35c each postpaid. Address CALIFORNIA GARDEN, Balboa Park, S. D. I. 



Tuberous begonias ready for planting 
now. Only the finest . . . direct from 

Vetterle's in Capitola, available at . . . 



GARDEN CENTER 



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LA JOLLA 




APRIL-MAY, 1963 



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Overlooking La Jolla Shores, Hillside 
Nursery is just up the hill from Torrey 
Pines Road, or down the hill from Mt. 
Soledad. Whichever approach you take, 
you'll find a wonderland of plants — rare 
begonias, philodendrons, tropicals, fine 
house plants — a wide variety of nursery 
stock, always at a peak of perfectior. 

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and soil sulfur which maintains 
acidity. 

If clay pots are dirty, soak over- 
night in water with clorox added. A 
brass scouring material called "Crazy 
Kate" is fine to scrub off the crust of 
lime. Rinse and dry the pots. Earth 
sticks to wet pots and closes the 
pores. 

Heavy plastic pots are more use- 
ful than any others. They are light 
weight, dry out slowly, drain well, 
do not break easily and do not hold 
the lime deposits from the water. 
Tin containers are very satisfactory, 
except in looks. 

Smooth cane begonias should 
have recovered from the freeze by 
now. They should be sending up 
new shoots from the ground and 
from joints on the branches. If 
stalks are crowded, cut out the old 
gray ones close to the ground and 
tip-prune the younger branches to 
keep them bushy. 

The hirsute begonias do not grow 
as tall as the smooth ones but they 
are more bushy. They will need 
thinning out and a lot of good stak- 
ing and tying. If these varieties are 
leafing out in containers that seem 
crowded, prune a bit and move to a 
larger pot. 

Examine Roots 

If much of the roots and stem 
portions have died back, shake the 
plant from the pot and examine 
roots for nematode knots. Discard 
both plants and soil if evidence is 
found. If not, cut out diseased por- 
tions and shift begonia to a smaller 
pot. Long stringy stems on low 
bushy begonias should be cut back 
to encourage new growth from the 
bottom. 

Begonias that have enlarged root 
stalks growing on the surface of the 
soil, with fibrous roots emerging 
from each node or joint that touches 



moist earth, are called rhizomatous 
(pronounced rhi-ZHOM-a-tous) be- 
gonias. Most of them have lost all 
or part of their leaves and are either 
in full bloom or just through flower- 
ing, so they are due for a rest. 

New Leaves 

Do not repot these begonias until 
they send up new leaves. Be very 
careful not to overwater them while 
dormant. This applies especially to 
the rex-rhizomatous. When they 
leaf out cut back the old rhizomes 
that are soft or dried up and reset 
in shallow pots with the growing 
tip as far as possible from the edge 
of the container. 

Water all plants well after pot- 
ting and not again until almost dry. 
Keep in shaded sheltered place un- 
til they "take hold" again. 

If your tuberous begonias are 
well-rooted and four or more inches 
high, set them out in the ground or 
in pots. Remember that the leaves 
point to the front. As you plant 
the begonias place stakes in the back 
so they will be ready when you need 
to tie up the plants. Guard against 
over-watering until well established. 
For better bloom, give plenty of 
light with the morning sun and 
afternoon shade. 

Ellen Dee 

Try hanging baskets of tuberous 
this year. Wire containers should be 
relined with fresh moss. There is 
a pendant cane begonia, Ellen Dee, 
that has proved to be quite hardy 
and most popular. It has bloomed 
all winter in several lcations. See 
your nurserymen for some of the 
handsome new low-growing begon- 
ias that are so good in baskets. 

When all the replanting and re- 
potting and clean-up jobs are done 
you can settle down to enjoy be- 
gonias. They will need some stak- 



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SHORELINE NURSERIES 

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Rare Tropicals 
Color in all seasons 
Indoor and potted plants 
LARGEST VARIETY of plant 



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LEUCADIA 



753-2933 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



ing and tying, a bit of tipping back 
and a light feeding of acid-type 
food every other week. Sometimes 
there is mealy bug or scale, rarely 
aphids. A preventative spray for 
mildew, especially on the tuberous 
types, is good. Generally begonias 
are very easy to care for. The hard- 
est work is trying to persuade your- 
self to throw away the many cuttings 
instead of being a slave to the thou- 
sands you will make. 

Dorothy S. Behrends 

A. D. Robinson Begonia Society 



• DAHLIAS 

^Prepare soil carefully 

*Plant root 6-8 inches deep 

*Keep soil damp until leaves 
develop well 

^Discourage insects early 

THIS is the best time of the year 
to plant dahlias. 

They may be planted until about 
July 1 in the coastal and foothill 
areas; and until about June 1 in the 
warmer sections inland. 

Planting early means earlier 
blooms. Later, the blooming season 
will continue on until frost, or un- 
til mid-November. 

Roots for planting are available 
at the good nurseries, from dahlia 
specialists, mail order houses, and, 
if you know them, probably from 
dahlia hobbyist members of the San 
Diego County Dahlia Society. 

Many dahlia fans prefer plants to 
roots, but these are obtainable only 
from a dahlia specialist, and require 
a little different care. 

The roots just placed haphazardly 
in the ground probably will grow 
and develop plants that will bloom. 
But, if they are worth planting they 
are worth starting off correctly. 

After the bed is prepared and 
turned to a good gardening tilth, 
a one-by-one inch stake should be 
placed in each spot you have selected 
for a plant. Scoop out a hole at the 
base of the stake and stir into the 
soil a good handful of bonemeal, 
and then place the root, lying flat, 
about 6 to 8 inches deep — shallow 
for heavy soils. 

You should have no difficulty in 
seeing the sprout or eye on the 
crown of the root; by now the good 



roots will have awakened from their 
dormancy and started to grow. They 
might even have feeler roots de- 
veloping on the ends or sides. 

Place the eye or sprout about 2 
inches from the stake, and cover the 
root carefully to a depth of 2 to 4 
inches. If the sprout already has 
developed tiny leaves, let them re- 
main above the soil enough to be 
able to continue to grow. As the 
sprout grows, fill in the hole. 

(As the plant grows, tie it loosely 
to the stake.) 

If the soil is less than damp it 
should be watered thoroughly and 
then watered only enough to prevent 
drying out until the plant develops 
a good set of leaves. 

PREVENTIVE SPRAYING 

To get one up in the battle against 
insects, it is a good idea to do some 
preventive spraying as soon as you 
have finished planting. This should 
be done with a 50-50 mixture of 
DDT and chlordane. Cover the entire 
dahlia bed — the entire garden area, 
paths, fence lines, shrub and tree 
areas, in fact. Another spraying with 
a weaker solution of the same insec- 
ticides should follow after the dah- 
lia plants have developed a couple 



of sets of leaves. 

Why? This will discourage in- 
vaders, and the residue on the soil 
will help guard the little plants. It 
the garden harbors snails or slugs, 
bait should be spread in the dahlia 
bed. 

The second spraying is intended 
to take care of thrips and leaf miners 
that just love tender dahlia leaves. 
Afterward, a regular schedule of 
spraying with malathion or a good 
all-purpose solution should suffice 
until fall. A regular schedule means 
once every week to 10 days. 

Experienced gardeners have their 
own methods of preventing insect 
damage; when they spend anywhere 
from $1.50 to $20 for one dahlia 
root they are not about to allow in- 
sects to mar the blooms! Some of 
these methods include adding a lit- 
tle oil spray to the solution for a 
continuing protection against leaf 
miners, adding arsenate of lead — 
about a tablespoon to five gallons — 
to trap the chewers, or adding kel- 
thane or other miticides to dis- 
courage red spiders. 

In warmer areas the gardener 
might not want to risk oil in his 
spray; if so, he might use fish emul- 
sion to get some of the same effect, 



Garnet Nursery 

1530 Garnet — Pacific Beach — 488-3281 

Open Daily 
Free Delivery — 30 Day Accounts on Approved Credit 



BLUE RIBBON DAHLIAS 



DAHLIA PLANTING TIME IS HERE 

For the best in roots, plants, and seeds, send for COMSTOCK'S 
FREE 1962 CATALOG LISTING 164 VARIETIES of highest quality. 

Plus planting instructions and cultural hints. 

Roots, plants, and seed for sale on Saturdays and Sundays, April 1st 
through May 26. 

COMSTOCK DAHLIA GARDENS 



145 Dahlia Dr. 



P.O. Box 308 



Solana Beach, Calif. 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 



27 




733 Broadway 239-1228 

Validated Customer Parking at Rear of Store 



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CALL 234-5344 

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Gaffi del (ley Mo*a 

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234-2 I6I 

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COMPLIMENTS OF 
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CALIFORNIA GARDEN 
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25c each — Choose any 5 for $1 

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Address: BACK ISSUES 

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and to apply a little foliar feeding 
at the same time. 

Much of the fun of growing dah- 
lias comes in developing one's own 
tricks, and a good way to learn the 
other fellow's is to get acquainted 
with him at the meetings of the 
dahlia society. 

Larry Sisk 
S. D. County 
Dahlia Society 



• CAMELLIAS 

*Water well but beware 
of salts 

*Fertilize for strength 

*Prune interior growth 

*April-May not too late 

CAMELLIAS are deceptively 
easy to grow in the Southland, 
but judgment must be exercised and 
systematic care given for reasonably 
good to optimum results. 

At this season, watering, fertiliz- 
ing, and pruning command top at- 
tention. 

The natural taproot of the camel- 
lia, which in the wild draws on the 
water and nutrient resources of 
ever deeper layers of soil, is sub- 
stantially a casualty of the commer- 
cial production of plants in its do- 
mesticated form. It is nipped off at 
a very early stage in the growth of 
the seedling (used as root stock for 
grafted plants) to force lateral root 
growth better adapted to transplant- 
ing and container culture. Plants 
rooted from cuttings never have a 
taproot. The result is that nearly all 
camellias start off with a shallow 
root system and thus require fre- 
quent watering and considerable 
topsoil enrichment for some years. 

Potting mixes, which move into 
garden intact with the root ball, 
range from silt and clay to blends 
of sand and humus, the latter gen- 
erally being comprised of peat moss, 
rice hulls, or leafmold. Water reten- 
tion properties and percolation rates 



differ widely. 

Camellias do best in well aerated 
soil, yet are easily injured by water 
stress, thus the soil should never 
be allowed to dry out. Frequency 
of watering must be governed by 
the moisture-retaining properties of 
the soil and the weather encoun- 
tered. 

In the coastal region, for plant- 
ings in friable soil comprised of 
about one-third sandy loam, one- 
third peat moss, and one-third oak 
leafmold, or equivalent, deep water- 
ing once a week is usually adequate. 
Inland, summer watering should be 
stepped up to two or three times per 
week. 

BEWARE SALTS 

Water percolates readily through 
a light soil mix such as described 
and it is difficult to overwater so 
long as good subsoil drainage exists. 
The latter permits periodic leaching 
of the rootbed area to preclude a 
build-up of harmful salts, a major 
hazard in the Southwest. 

Colorado River water delivered in 
much of Southern California is 
"good enough" for Johnny to drink, 
but too salty to meet government 
specifications for high-grade con- 
crete. It has a pH of 8.77, well on 
the alkaline side. The slightly acid 
soil that camellias prefer is best 
maintained by rain water, but irri- 
gation water will suffice if the root 
zone is leached of accumulated salts 
from time to time. 

Next in importance to watering is 
the desirability of fertilizing to pro- 
mote good spring growth. It is this 
new wood, which when hardened off 
in summer (through storage of 
starches and sugars), that will pro- 
duce next season's best blooms. 

Cottonseed meal and the bal- 
anced commercial products offered 
as Camellia-Azalea food are recom- 
mended. The latter usually contain 
chelated trace elements helpful in 
combatting chlorosis. Most experi- 
enced growers fertilize about three 
times during the growing season, 
starting off at the end of the bloom- 
ing season and following up with a 
second and third application at six 
to eight-week intervals. The trend 



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Large Selection of Roses, Blooming Azaleas 



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1525 Fort Stockton Drive 



Phone 295-2808 
San Diego 3 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



is to use a balanced commercial 
product for the year's initial appli- 
cation, then to use cottonseed meal 
for the second and third round. If 
a mulch of compost or leafmold is 
added, both of which are fair 
sources of organic nutrients, cut the 
fertilizer application recommended 
on the package by about one-third. 

PRUNING HINTS 

Pruning or shaping of plants 
should be done for best results be- 
fore the spring flush of new growth, 
but April and May are not too late 
if this chore was neglected in March. 

Remove completely any interior 
twiggy growth shaded by outer fol- 
iage. This thinning out allows bet- 
ter air circulation, light penetration, 
and more food to reach the most 
productive wood. 

Additional pruning may be done 
to invigorate a plant, to keep it 



within bounds, or to shape it. 

Cutting back laterals and the thin- 
ning out of side growth reduces the 
growing points of a plant, thus 
channeling more food to those re- 
maining. When shortening growth, 
make the cut at a leaf node, prefer- 
ably where a growth bud is evident. 
This last is desirable with Japonicas, 
but especially important in the case 
of reticulata camellias which set a 
minimum of inside growth buds and 
initiate very few adventitious buds. 

Plants may be topped to stimulate 
more bushy growth or to establish 
a height limit, but care must be ex- 
ercised in this to assure a shapely 
plant with reasonable top foliage 
rather than an unsightly stump and 
considerable interior wood exposed 
to sun scald. 

Clive Pillsbury 

S. D. Camellia Society 



BOOK TOURS 

Conducted by Alice W. Heyneman 



Garden Pinks. By Roy Genders. St. 

Martin's Press, New York, 1962. 

(Printed in Great Britain.) 160 

pages. $5.95. 

Although New York is given as 
place of publication of these two 
books by Roy Genders, this is a 
technicality only; no garden books 
could possibly be more English, and 
the cultural directions and even the 
phraseology are devotedly aimed at 
the British gardener. This makes for 
delightful — if not 100 per cent prac- 
tical — reading, and this book on 
Pinks is particularly charming. 

Somehow it seems to me that Eng- 
lish gardens have always given more 
emphasis to the growing of pinks 
than their American counterparts 
do; there has always been a special 
enthusiasm reserved for this flower 
in the old garden books. I suspect 
that we, in California, have never 
done the pink justice; not, certainly 
if the literal hundreds of listings, 
complete with delightfully fanciful 
names and descriptions, in this lit- 
tle book is a fair guide. 

There are many pictures, too — 
but the five color photographs by 
John Gledhill are outstandingly al- 
luring, and the sixth, on the dust 
wrapper, is best of all. Twenty-nine 
other photographs, plus line draw- 
ings, are included. This is not just 
a picture book — even though the 
pictures are enough to make pink 
growers of us all. 



Soils, propagation, arrangement 
in borders, exhibiting, marketing, 
and the special care incident to 
growing in boxes or tubs are all 
enthusiastically taken up in turn, as 
are the uses of pinks between pav- 
ing slabs or blooming in cracks in a 
dry wall. And of course the al- 
ways necessary subject of pests and 
diseases (they don't seem to be sub- 
ject to very many!) is competently 
dealt with. 

Names of many of the varieties 
are descriptive and delightful; there 
are Freckles (salmon pink flecked 
with red), London Poppet (semi- 
double white and ruby), Seamew 
(pale pink and crimson), and Be- 
linda (strawberry, zoned with ma- 
roon). There are actually several 
hundred of these named varieties, 
quite a number of them several 
years old, and there are categories 
into which they fit: the Allwoodii, 
the Garden Pinks, the Laced and 
Show Pinks, new hybrids, and more. 

It is plain that here is a garden 
subject that will bear more investi- 
gation; a good way to start is with 
a delightful book like this one of 
Mr. Genders. 

Colour All The Year Round. By 
Roy Genders. St. Martin's Press, 
New York, 1963. 287 pages. 
$5.95. 
"Colour All The Year Round" 

carries the subtitle, "A Complete 



Handbook For The Small Flower 
Garden." If one narrows this a lit- 
tle to the English flower garden — 
for which it is specifically intended 
— then this is fair enough, for it 
covers an incredibly wide area of 
ornamental plant material. 

It opens with a comprehensive 
discussion of trees, shrubs and 
hedges, mainly from the standpoint 
of color and of appearance in the 
garden. Cultural problems are not 
entirely omitted, but far more at- 
tention is given to the more scenic 
ones of brilliance, height, and time 
of blooming. 

In the chapter on roses, culture, 
soils and pruning are of necessity 
given more importance, but lists 
and descriptions are extensive. (It 
is interesting to note that a great 
many of our most popular recent 
roses are not mentioned.) 

Chapters on winter plants, spring 
bloomers, hardy annuals, and sum- 
mer and autumn color follow, with 
reference to bedding plants as well 
as to the use of bulbs, climbers, and 
"rockery" plants. 

The great English herbaceous bor- 
der is given its due importance 
which is wonderful to read about 
even though it is so difficult to main- 
tain in Southern California. Here 
it is in all its glory with charts, 
photographs and height and color 
lists. One yearns to try it just once 
more! 

Mr. Gender's book is extremely 
well organized; plant materials — and 
I have hardly hinted at how many 
there are — are all listed and de- 
scribed in their proper divisions 
and categories. It is all logical, and 
certainly comprehensive. Illustra- 
tions, mostly from photographs, 
while not particularly numerous or 
spectacular, are adequate and in- 
formative and there is a good index. 



John toll 
booklet 



e& in 
craft shop 

7571 lpanhoe Avznu* 
Ua (olla California 

454-4766 



EXOTICA NURSERY 

One block west of the stop light in 

SOLANA BEACH 

Bromeliads and Other 

House Plants a Specialty 

ON THE PLAZA — 755-1949 — OPEN DAILY 



APRIL-MAY, 1963 



29 



Pardon our rather red faces but we realty goo jed 



Dear Editor: 

I believe you are in error on the 
names of the plants on the back 
cover of your Feb. -March 1963 
California Garden magazine. It 
is possible for me to be wrong, not 
being acquainted with the location 
of the picture, but I am quite sure 
the plants are not Dracaena Palms 
and Guadalupe Palms. The plants 
as I see them are Yucca brevijolia 
or valida and the hesper palm Ery- 
thea Brandegeei. 

Respectfully, 

Robert H. Nelson 
P. O. Box 771 
San Ysidro, Cal. 

A Correction 

By Chauncy I. Jerabek 



It just 
is perfect; 



our 
the 
see 
are 
the 



seems that not one of us 
we all make mistakes now 
and then. Some one did just that in 
naming the plants on the back cover 
of the February-March issue of Cali- 
fornia Garden. 

Mr. Robert H. Nelson, of San 
Ysidro, in reading through this issue, 
noticed this mistake. Sometimes we 
do not like to be reminded of 
errors, but when people read 
magazine so carefully that they 
our faults, we know that they 
not merely skimming through 
pages, therefore we wish to thank 
Mr. Nelson for bringing this to our 
attention. 

The palms that can be seen in the 
picture are Erythea Brandegeei, some- 
times called the "San Jose Hesper 
Palm," a native of the southern part 
of Lower California. The specific 
name was given for Townsend S. 
Brandegee, horticulturist, 1843- 
1925. 

If anyone is interested in seeing 
these palms first hand, go to Balboa 
Park. The original group, in a small 
canyon northeast of the Bowling 
Green contained more than a hun- 
dred specimens. Mr. Fred Bode, 
who was the horticulturist for the 
1935-1936 Exposition, transplanted 
two into the patio of the House of 
Hospitality, and one east of the 
Philippine cottage in the House of 
Pacific Relations Group. Several 
years later I had five brought to the 
corner, south of the Craft Center in 
the Palisades area of the park. Two 
others in the city are at the south- 



west corner at 7441 Olivetta, La 
Jolla; and on the northwest corner 
of Louisiana and Howard in Normal 
Heights. 

For a good illustration, see the 
cover of the Spring, 1959 issue of 
California Garden. 

The other plants are Samuela car- 
nerosiona, a native of the Carnerosa 
Pass in northeastern Mexico. Many 
refer to this as Yucca australis. They 
could be correct, but I think they are 
one and the same. In its native 
country it is called "Palma samon- 
doca," but in Southern California, 
we refer to it as the date-yucca. 

Miss K. O. Sessions planted these 
in the western part of Balboa Park. 
From this group, with the help of 



some good WPA men, I trans- 
planted eight specimens of various 
sizes to the aloe and agave garden. 
Two were branched, the rest were 
single trunked. I also moved sev- 
eral to the Cove at La Jolla near 
the steps. Frank Taylor, the gen- 
eral foreman, transplanted one to 
the patio of the Police Department, 
at the foot of Market Street. 

I marvel that the weight of these 
tall tree trunks, arching out into 
space, does not snap off the whole 
tree or uproot it. 

For a detailed illustration show- 
ing the inflorescence, and a more 
detailed description, see the Golden 
Jubilee number of the California 
Garden. Autumn, 1959. 




30 



CALIFORNIA GARDEN 



mem mmm 

m SD15P 





DON'T BE A LITTERBUG! 

Drop every litter bit in the nearest trash basket at your favorite beach. And always carry a litterbag in 
your car. Then you'll never be a litterbug! All through your long day's outing, you'll help keep America 
clean and beautiful. You'll help contain the clutter of trash that makes the cleanest beach unsightly 



and unsanitary. You'll help prevent the pile-up of trash that costs $50 million 
a year to pick up from major highways alone. Remember, every litter bit hurts 
when it hits the beach. Every litter bit helps when it hits the litter basket. 



\«**G 




Mrs. R. M. Middleton 
3944 Centre St. 
San Diego 3, Calif. 



•17 5) 



Solve Your Garden Club 



FUND-RAISING PROBLEMS 



with the 






RDEN 



Solution 



Share in the California Garden Subscription Price. 

Your Garden Club will receive 50c of each subscription 
sold to the magazine. Your club should be 100% sub- 
scribed to this journal of garden experts. Members' 
friends can benefit from the enlightening and enjoyable 
articles that will make you an expert. There is no better 
way to gain funds and invaluable information for your 
club. Investigate the details. 

Lakeside Garden Club President, Mrs. Cecil Carrender, 
reports that her organization is nearing the 100% mark. 

Don't let your club miss out on this excellent opportunity. 
No need to be a member of the San Diego Floral Assn., 
either. Any accredited garden club can qualify today. 

For further information call 252-5762 

MON. - WED. - FRI. from 9 A.M. to 3 P.M. 
MRS. GARCIA — SUBSCRIPTION MANAGER 



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